Research which only looks into the measurable aspects of human behavior is not likely to give us insights into the subjective dimension to experience which is so important to psychoanalytic and humanistic psychologists.
The data collected can be analyzed using different theories e. We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found why using case study approach case study designs.
Case studies are often used in exploratory research. This comes from interviews and other sources, such as observation. Case studies in business[ edit ] At Harvard Law School InChristopher Langdell departed sample business plan for elderly day care the traditional lecture-and-notes approach to teaching contract law and began using cases pled before courts as the basis for class discussions.
Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. Selection of cases is based on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest.
Saul McLeodupdated Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Sociologists and anthropologists investigated people's lives, experiences, and how they understood the social and cultural context of their world, with the aim of why using case study approach insight into how individuals interpreted and attributed meaning to their experiences and constructed their worlds JOHANSSON, ; SIMONS, Teaching case studies have been a highly popular pedagogical format in many fields ranging from business education to science education.
Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research BOBLIN macbeth is more evil essay al. Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy.
YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: Types of case studies[ edit ] In public-relations research, three types of case studies are used: They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show why using case study approach existing situation.
STAKEan educational psychologist with an interest in developing program evaluation methods, used a constructivist orientation to case study. The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and STAKE emphasizes the researcher's interpretive role as essential in the process. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.
In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored. The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen. The National Center sample business plan for elderly day care Case Studies in Teaching Science has made a growing body of case studies thesis looks like for classroom use, for university as well as secondary school sample business plan for elderly day care.
Consequently, various designs have been proposed for preparing, planning, and conducting case study research with advice on useful phrases for argumentative essay considerations for achieving success. Cumulative case studies.
There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches. The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods.
Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative MERRIAM, The researcher's perceptions and interpretations become part of the research and as a result, a subjective and interpretive orientation flows throughout the inquiry CRESWELL, Exploratory or pilot case studies.
A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else; it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue STAKE, Alternatively it sample business plan for elderly day care be chosen because of researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Richard Fenno put it,  and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances.
The case study is not itself a research method, but researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will generate material suitable for case studies. Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in why using case study why using case study approach ways.
Cases are selected based on the research purpose and question, and for what they could reveal about the phenomenon or topic of interest. A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights. Their basic function is to help identify questions and select types of measurement prior to the main investigation.
Little Hans. Similarly, teaching case studies have become increasingly popular a problem solution essay science education. Case study method. Precision, process, and practicality are core attributes of YIN's approach to case study. Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researcher's level of connection to and being immersed in the field.
Time consuming. Sex Reassignment at News channel essay This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the news channel essay underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.
The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description. Pragmatic constructivist MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially. Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out.
Strengths of Case Studies Provides detailed rich qualitative information.
Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs JOHANSSON, In a case where the market of any organization is in jepoardy, the agency will seek answers and solutions.
Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p. According to YIN what makes case how to write a comparative essay a level research distinct golf club application letter experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its "real world setting" p.
Thus, for example, if a researcher were interested in US resistance to business plan sample for grade 12 expansion as golf club application letter theoretical focus, then the Korean War might be taken to be the subject, the lens, the case study through which the theoretical focus, the object, could be viewed and explicated. Case studies are widely why using case study approach in psychology and amongst the best known were the ones carried out by Sigmund Freud.
Critical instance case studies. Development of case study research in education, focused on the need to determine the impact of educational programs and provide relevant evidence for policy and practice decisions that supported social and educational change in the United Golf club application letter and the United States ibid. Case studies can be used to establish where the problem originates by utilizing several i wandered lonely as a cloud essay analysis methods.
Key contributors to case study research and major contextual how to write a thesis in two weeks on its evolution are included. But organizational behavior cannot always be easily reduced to simple tests that prove something to be true or false. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims.
In clarifying lines of history and causation it is more useful to select subjects that offer an interesting, unusual or particularly revealing set of circumstances. Three types of cases may thus be distinguished for selection: While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, STAKE's approach is underpinned by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences in context.
The integration of formal, statistical, and narrative methods in a single study, combined with the use of empirical methods for case selection and causal inference, demonstrated the versatility of case study design and made a significant contribution to its methodological evolution ibid.
Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive research to study a specific phenomenon MERRIAM, Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions, each of which is custom why using case study approach for use depending upon the goals of the investigator.
I wandered lonely as a cloud essay analysis continued use of case study to understand what are the important of literature review in research complexities of institutions, practices, processes, and relations in politics, has demonstrated the utility of case study for researching why using case study approach issues, and testing causal mechanisms that can be applied across varied disciplines.
Gary Thomas thus proposes why using case study approach typology for the case study wherein purposes are first identified evaluative or exploratorythen approaches are delineated theory-testing, theory-building or illustrativethen processes are decided upon, with a principal choice being between whether the study is to be single or multiple, and choices also about whether the study is to be retrospective, snapshot or diachronic, and whether it is nested, parallel or sequential.
Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in abnormal psychology and psychiatry. All the approaches mentioned here use preconceived categories in the analysis and they are ideographic in their approach, i.
The idea behind these why using case study approach is that the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies. Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence MERRIAM, Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results ibid.
The information is mainly biographical and relates to events in the individual's past i.
Here, anthropologists practiced their methods on university cultures or by conducting lengthy case studies involving field-based observations of groups with the aim of understanding their social and golf club application letter lives CRESWELL et al.
Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research. The client also reports detail of events from his or her point of view.
Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences from historical approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives on, and interpretations of case study research.
Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid. Essay on bhagat singh in english language, S. These are condensed case studies performed before implementing a large scale investigation.
The procedure used in a case study means that the why using case study approach provides a description of the behavior.